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JOINT BULLETIN No. 1 



Vermont Botanical and 

Bird Club 



Comprising Bulletin No. 10 of the Vermont Botanical 
Club and Bulletin No. 9 of the Vermont 

Bird Club 



APRIL, 1915 



Published Annually by the Club 



burlington, vt. : 

Free Press Printing Company, 

1915. 



OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES. 

PRESIDENT, Ezra Brainerd, Middlebury. 
VICE-PRESIDENT, H. F. Perkins, Burlington. 
SECRETARY, George P. Burns, Burlington. 
TREASURER, Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn, Burlington. 
EDITOR, George L. Kirk, Rutland. 
LIBRARIAN, Miss Phoebe M. Towle, Burlington. 



Committee ox Summer Meeting, 1915. 

Miss Alice W. Wilcox, St. Johnsbury 
Miss Inez A. Howe, St. Johnsbury. 
Miss Mabel A. Shields, St. Johnsbury. 
W. E. Balch, Lunenburg. 



Committee ox Wixter Meeting, 1916. 

Jay G. Underwood, Hartland. 
Miss Inez A. Howe, St. Johnsbury. 
Dana S. Carpenter, Middletown Springs. 



VERMONT BOTANICAL AND BIRD 

CLUB 

JOINT BULLETIN No. 1 APRIL, 1915 

PUBLISHED ANNUALLY BY THE CLUB 

One copy of the bulletin is sent to each member. Extra copies of 
bulletins 1 to 9 of the Vermont Bird club and bulletins 1 to 10 of the 
Vermont Botanical club may be obtained of the librarian at Burlington 
for 10 cents each to club members and 25 cents to outsiders. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Editorial Announcement 4 

Winter Meeting of 1915 4 

Summer Meeting of 1914 7 

Officers' Reports 8 

Seven Year Bird Census at Woodstock 9 

Why Does Gilliflower Apple Fail to Perfect Its' Seed? 13 

Winter Birds Scarce in Vermont 15 

Plant Quarantine Laws 18 

Short-billed Marsh Wren and Henslow's Sparrow at Clarendon 19 

Bird Calendar from Waitsfield 21 

Forest Fungi of Bethel 24 

Birds Along Source of Black River 25 

Crossbills at St. Johnsbury 28 

Additions to Vermont Hepatic List 28 

New Vermont Hepaticae in 1913 29 

Notes on Vermont Nature Clubs 30 

A Bird Calendar 31 

Nature Work in Bennington Library 32 

A Filix-mas Hybrid 32 

New Botanical Finds for St. Johnsbury 33 

Notes 34 



4 Joint Bulletin 1 

EDITORIAL. 

With this issue appears the first joint bulletin of the Vermont 
Botanical club and the Vermont Bird club. It is believed that the con- 
solidation of these two organizations will make a stronger club and, 
as plant and bird study go hand in hand, the union should bring about 
a deeper interest in the subject in the state with its consequent good 
results. This larger bulletin will command more attention outside of 
the immediate membership of the club than either of the two smaller 
publications previously issued and it should result in larger enroll- 
ment of members among persons who are summer visitors to the 
Green Mountains. 

To get out a better bulletin means greater cooperation of members 
in providing material, hustling to get more nature lovers interested in 
the club and more prompt payment of dues. The treasurer's report 
shows that there is reason for this last suggestion. 

The editor is pleased with the many short notes of interest sent in 
for the 1915 bulletin. This is a feature worth expanding and it is 
gratifying to see it grow. We welcome, too, the article on fungi. This 
branch of botany has been neglected of late in the state and the publi- 
cation of local lists is to be desired. The moss and lichen enthusiasts 
should be heard from also. 



MEETINGS OF THE YEAR. 

The Winter Meeting of 1915. 
C. D. Howe. 

The 14th annual winter meeting of the Vermont Bird club was held 
in conjunction with the Vermont Botanical club at Williams Science 
hall, University of Vermont, Burlington, on Friday and Saturday, 
January 29 and 30, 1915. The first session began at 10.30 a. m., with 
Pres. Ezra Brainerd of the Botanical club in the chair. Pres. G. H. 
Perkins of the Bird club proposed that the two clubs consider the idea 
of uniting. It was voted that the chair appoint a committee of five 
members composed of the members of both clubs to consider this 
matter. 

It was voted to accept and endorse the action of President Perkins 
in making the club a member of the National Association of Audubon 
societies and to reimburse him for the fee of $5 which he had paid. 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 5 

It was voted to pay the expenses of Herbert K. Job as lecturer 
before the club. 

The chair appointed as committee to consider the matter of union, 
Prof. G. P. Burns, D. S. Carpenter, J. G. Underwood, Miss Annie 
Lorenz, and Miss Inez A. Howe. 

Mr. Underwood, Miss Howe, and G. W. French were appointed as a 
committee on summer meeting. 

The treasurer submitted his report, which showed $38.01 on hand 
in the general fund of the club, and $32.21 on hand in the life member- 
ship fund. This report was accepted and adopted by vote of the club. 

At the afternoon session the committee on union made a report 
which was accepted and adopted by the club. By this action the club 
accepted the principle of union, provided the name to be the Vermont 
Botanical and Bird club, agreed to the election of joint officers for the 
two clubs, agreed to the publication of a joint bulletin, and to the elec- 
tion of a permanent committee on union who should consider the 
matter carefully and make a report in writing at the next winter 
meeting of the club. 

Prof. A. E. Lambert, president of the Audubon society of Vermont, 
spoke in regard to the work of that society, asking recognition and 
relationship between the Audubon society and the united clubs. It was 
voted that the matter of relationship be left to the decision of the 
permanent committee on union. 

The chair appointed as committee on permanent union of the two 
clubs, Prof. G. H. Perkins, Prof. G. P. Burns, Mrs. A. B. Morgan, and 
J. G. Underwood. The meeting insisted that President Brainerd should 
be a member of this committee and he was elected by the club. 

The nominating committee consisting of Mr. Underwood, Mr. Car- 
penter, A. K. Peitersen, Miss Lorenz, and Miss Howe reported the 
following officers to serve as joint officers of the two clubs for the 
ensuing year, and they were elected by vote of the clubs: President, 
Dr. Ezra Brainerd, Middlebury; vice-president, Dr. H. P. Perkins, Bur- 
lington; secretary, Prof. G. P. Burns, Burlington; treasurer, Mrs. 
Nellie F. Flynn, Burlington; editor, George L. Kirk, Rutland; librarian, 
Miss Phoebe M. Towle, Burlington. 

During the meeting the following new members were elected: Mrs. 
George Wales, Burlington; Richard Gaylord, Waitsfield; A. E. Lambert, 
Middlebury; Miss Leila E. Honsinger, Swanton Center (P. O. St. Albans, 
R. F. D.); P. A. Sneider, U. V. M., Burlington; Mrs. John K. Hooper, 
Burlington; Miss Josephine Tatro, 39 Lafayette Place, Burlington; Miss 



6 Joint Bulletin 1 

Inez Perkins, Dewey Mills; Mrs. Frances Jolly, Berkshire; Mrs. J. D. 
Jarvis, Waitsfield; Miss Mabel I. Durivage, Concord, N. H. ; Mrs. G. A. 
Robbins, 249 Church St., Burlington; Prof. G. P. Burns, Burlington; 
Miss Lilla Montgomery, Burlington; Miss Blanche Montgomery, Bur- 
lington; C. H. Knowlton, Hingham, Mass.; Prof. H. F. Perkins, Bur- 
lington; Mrs. Mary E. French, Middletown Springs; Miss Grace 
Wheeler, Springfield; Miss Elizabeth McCarthy, Springfield; Mrs. I. R. 
Doane, Springfield; Mrs. H. H. Blanchard, Springfield; Mrs. Lydia Hall 
Hardy, Danville; George M. Wright, 2S0 Broadway, New York; Mrs. 
E. H. Sargent, East Thetford; Miss Stella Hitchins, Middletown 
Springs; G. C. Cunningham, Burlington; L. H. Flint, Burlington; Mrs. 
G. C. Cunningham, Burlington. 

The club voted to hold the next summer meeting at St. Johnsbury 
at the invitation of the St. Johnsbury museum, July 6, 1915. The fol- 
lowing were appointed as a committee to have charge of the arrange- 
ments: Miss Alice W. Wilcox, Miss Howe, Miss Mabel A. Shields, W. E. 
Balch. 

The annual supper to visiting members and roll call was held at 
Commons hall at 6. p. m. At 7 p. m. the clubs listened to an extremely 
interesting illustrated lecture by Herbert K. Job, entitled "Value and 
Profit from Wild Birds." 

During the sessions the following papers were read: "Some Bird 
and Flower Experiences," by Miss Inez Addie Howe of St. Johnsbury; 
"Field Notes on Birds," by George H. Ross of Rutland; "The Audubon 
Society of Vermont," by Prof. A. E. Lambert of Middlebury; "A Study 
in Bird Ecology," by Mrs. A. B. Morgan of Woodstock; "What Happens 
in the Bird's Egg" (illustrated by lantern slides), by Dr. H. F. Perkins 
of Burlington; "Observation of Birds along the Source of the Black 
River," by Mrs. W. H. Moore of Woodstock; "The Occurrence of the 
Short-billed Marsh Wren and Henslow's Sparrow at Clarendon," by 
L. H. Potter, Clarendon. 

Twelve botanical papers were read and discussed. Pres. Ezra 
Brainerd's talk on "New Stations for Rare Forms of Rubus in Vermont" 
was of especial interest and Professor Peitersen's paper entitled "Some 
Problems in the Study of Vermont Blackberries" was highly instructive. 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 7 

The Summer Meeting of 1914. 
Nellie F. Flynn. 

The summer meeting of 1914 was held at Pair Haven, Thursday, 
Friday and Saturday, July 9, 10 and 11. Headquarters were at Hotel 
Allen, which sets an unexcelled table. 

Thursday morning was spent in botanizing on some of the hills of 
slate rock formation near the village and at a place owned by Zenas H. 
Ellis, a member of the club, who is carrying on a small experiment 
farm for his own amusement. He grows a great many plants of 
economic value — fruits, nuts, berries, etc., in great variety. Among 
them were the black walnut, fig, olive, cactus, a Physalis, which makes 
a delicious preserve sampled by the club, an Amelanchier heavily loaded 
with especially fine fruit, all sorts of garden herbs, and other plants 
too numerous to mention. 

The afternoon was spent in a cedar swamp where grows the swamp 
valerian, Valeriana uliginosa. Some hybrid ferns were also found, 
besides the usual plants of such a habitat. Calypso oorealis was looked 
for in vain. 

Friday, the board of trade of Fair Haven furnished automobiles to 
carry us to West Haven and return. The day was spent about the 
ponds and cliffs of that region. The ponds were visited in the morning 
and among other plants was found the water star-grass, Heteranthera 
dubia. A long log lying beside the Poultney river furnished seats 
while we lunched, and after the inner man was satisfied, the cliffs 
furnished some good stiff climbing. We were well rewarded, however, 
by finding luxuriant specimens of the purple cliff brake, Pellaea atro- 
purpurea, the slender cliff brake, Gryptogramma Stelleri, the wall- 
rue spleenwort, Asplenium Ruta-muraria, and the maidenhair spleen- 
wort, Asplenium Trichomanes. Special attention was paid to the black- 
berries on all the trips. 

Saturday morning was to have been spent at Carver's Falls on the 
Poultney river, but lack of water owing to drought and a new dam, 
made the conditions unsatisfactory, and the trip was given up. The 
members dispersed in their several directions, some of us taking a side 
trip to Lake Bomoseen on the way back to Rutland. 

The weather man smiled on the club as he has a habit of doing, 
and as the attendance was good — some 30 members being present — the 
meeting was very satisfactory. 



8 Joixt Bulletin 1 

TREASURER'S REPORT FOR BOTANICAL CLUB. 



RECEIPTS. 

Cash on hand Jan. 29, 1914 $ 81.53 

Annual dues from members 77.00 

Interest on life membership fund 5.51 

Sale of club pins and buttons 3.90 



Total $167.94 

EXPENDITURES. 

Printing Bulletin No. 9 $ 47.60 

Club pins and buttons 44.20 

Postage 18.30 

Printing 500 constitutions 9.00 

Printing notices and programs 8.07 

Two years dues to N. E. F. of N. H. S 6.00 

Typewriting for Bulletin No. 9 1.75 

One-half hotel bill for forester at Townshend, July, 1913 1.32 

Stationery 1.24 

Cash on hand, Jan. 28, 1915 30.46 

Total $167.94 

Life membership fund $140.00 

Amount of dues outstanding 77.00 

Nellie P. Flynn, Treasurer. 



TREASURER'S REPORT VERMONT BIRD CLUB. 

Jan. 30, 1915. 

RECEIPTS. 

Cash on hand Feb. 2, 1914 $ 48.82 

Received dues call of Dec, 1913 34.50 

Life membership 10.00 

Gifts 10.00 

Sale of bulletins 2.30 

Dues from new members 6.00 

Dues call of Jan., 1915 41.50 

Total receipts $153.12 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Clup 9 

expenditures. 

Vermont Botanical club, bal. 1913 exp. of notices, etc $ 5.00 

Printing, 1913 8.00 

C. D. Howe, Sec, expenses, 1913 5.83 

H. F. Perkins, expenses, 1913 1.00 

Bulletin for 1914, printing 63.62 

Bulletin for 1914, express and postage 7.14 

New Eng. Federation, dues for two years 6.00 

Life membership deposited in bank 10.00 

Treasurer's expenses, postage 8.52 

Total $115.11 

Balance on hand 38.01 



$153.12 

LIFE MEMBERSHIP FUND. 

Deposited in Chittenden Trust Co. dues from 3 life members. .. .$30.00 
Interest accrued since first deposit was made 2.21 



Total on hand $32.21 

J. G. Underwood, Treasurer. 



SEVEN-YEAR BIRD CENSUS OF A 92-ACRE FARM 
KNOWN AS "THE HIGHLANDS," WOODSTOCK, 

VERMONT. 

Mrs. Evaline Darling Morgan. 

The farm at Woodstock, known as "The Highlands," now under 
observation for the past six years for birds that breed upon it contains 
92 acres, of which 20 acres, approximately, is in woodland. There are 
five separate lots or fields known respectively as main pasture, main 
field, back lot, 10-acre lot, and house lot. The town line between 
Woodstock and Hartland runs through the farm diagonally, the build- 
ings and a little more than half the land being in Woodstock. 

The farm is fenced largely by the old-fashioned stone walls which 
encourage the growth of much shrubbery, including apple, maple, 
cherry, ash, butternut, and oak trees, as well as berry bushes, wild 
flowers and ferns. The lane leading from the house to the main road 



10 Joint Bulletin 1 

to the east has purposely had the shrubbery left to form protection for 
the birds. In front of the house a bank covered with young maples 
attracts many of the shyer species and a big crab-apple tree at the 
corner of the house is the favorite feeding place for both resident birds 
and migrants. A very large grape vine completely covering a ledge to 
the west of the house serves as a splendid cover for many young birds, 
the old ones taking them there after their first flight and feeding them 
there for many days after. 

Cats have never been kept on the farm and as the nearest neighbor 
on one side is about one-eighth of a mile away, and one-fourth on the 
other, with a decided elevation on both sides, there have been prac- 
tically no depredations from them. Red squirrels were more numerous 
when we first moved to the farm than now. After having several pairs 
killed there has been no apparent trouble from them. 

The woodlands are in the main pasture and in the "back lot," the 
former being made up largely of sugar maples, the lower side of it 
being thick with an underbrush of young maples. The woods in the 
"back lot" are of beech, birch (yellow and white), maple, hop horn 
beam, sumach, and a few maples. In one section of this lot, 10,000 
white and Scotch pines and Norway spruces have been set out. 

The farm is watered by springs, a small brook flowing from the 
one in the 10-acre lot, and two watering troughs, one by the shady road- 
side and another in the main pastures serve as bird-baths. 

Hay is the only crop raised regularly on the farm. There are two 
vegetable gardens and a large flower garden. A young orchard, a 
grafted orchard, several old apple trees and scattering natural fruit 
trees as well as plenty of bird, black and choke cherry trees, hawthorne, 
red elder, barberry, mountain ash and shad are on various parts of the 
farm. 

The house stands at an elevation of 1,460 feet. The main hill at 
the west is 1,700 or more feet. "Pike's Peak" in the main field is 1,600 
feet. 

The distribution of birds by fields is as follows: 

Main Pasture and Woodland. 

'08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13 '14 

Hermit thrush 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 

Wood thrush 1 1 1 1 2 

Veery 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 

Scarlet tanager 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 

Solitary vireo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 11 



Crested flycatcher 1 1 1 

Wood pewee 1 1 1 

Yellow-bellied sapsucker 1 1 

Downy woodpecker 1 1 1 

Hairy woodpecker 2 2 2 

Flicker 1 1 1 

Oven bird 1 1 1 

Red start 1 1 1 

Nighthawk 3* 

Vesper sparrow 3 3 3 

Song sparrow 2 2 2 

Savana sparrow 1 1 1 

Red-eyed vireo 1 1 

Indigo bird 1 1 1 

*Or more. 

House Lot and Roadside. 

'08 '09 '10 

Bluebird 1 1 1 

Robin 2 2 2 

Song sparrow 2 2 1 

Phoebe 1 1 1 

Humming bird 1 1 1 

Catbird 1 

Chestnut-sided warbler 1 1 1 

Purple finch 1 1 

Red-eyed vireo 1 1 1 

Oriole (Baltimore) 1 1 

Chipping sparrow 1 1 1 

Barn swallow 2 2 3 

Chimney swift 3 3 3 

Summer warbler 1 1 

Rose-br. grosbeak 1 1 1 

Chebec 1 1 2 

Chickadee 1 1 1 

Yellow th. vireo 1 1 

Bl.-billed cuckoo 1 1 1 

Md. yellow throat 1 

Bl. and wh. warbler 1 1 1 

Screech owl 1 1 

Wh.-br. nuthatch 1 1 



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Joint Bulletin 1 



Main Field and Roadside. 

'08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13 '14 

Savana sparrow 3 3 2 2 3 2 1 

Vesper sparrow 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 

Field sparrow 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Song sparrow 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 

Goldfinch 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Kingbird 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Brown thrasher 1 1 1 

Back Lot and Woodland. 

'08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13 '14 

Vesper sparrow 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 

Song sparrow 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 

Field sparrow 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Upland plover 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Partridge 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Flicker 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Hairy woodpecker 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 

Downy woodpecker 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 

Chickadee 2 2 2 1 1 2 3 

Yellow-bl. sapsucker 1 2 2 2 2 

Hermit thrush 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 

Oven bird 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Bl. th. blue warbler 10 11 

Bl. th. green warbler 1 1 1 1 

Chestnut-sd. warbler 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Solitary vireo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Wood pewee 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Ten Acre Lot and Roadside. 

'08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13 '14 

Red-eyed vireo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Field sparrow 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Vesper sparrow 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Song sparrow 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Upland plover 1 

It will be seen from examining this record that the wood thrush 

and yellow-bellied sapsucker have increased in numbers — the robin, 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 13 

Baltimore oriole, catbird, screech owl, nighthawk, and summer warbler 
have decreased. 

From this record it is seen that there are 54 different species and 
an average of 81 pairs to 92 acres that breed at "The Highlands." 
The number of species to the acre is greater than the average, the num- 
ber of breeding pairs, less; the average for the state of Vermont being 
about 95 pairs on the same area under similar conditions. There is a 
striking uniformity both in kinds and total number of breeding pairs 
found year after year. 

Many of the variations merely show that the bird has changed its 
nesting site, as to an adjoining field or woodland. Before we moved 
to the farm the house was unoccupied and around it the birds lived 
and flourished without fear of being disturbed, and now have simply 
moved a-field a bit. Winter birds come and find sustenance in the 
old apple trees, and though I always. have food out for them now, I 
cannot see that it has greatly increased their number. They have 
never fed from the boxes after May, and this year (1914) none came 
to feed until January 1, (1915). 

My observation of the birds that breed at "The Highlands" is that 
they are surprisingly constant to time, place and purpose. 



WHY DOES THE GILLIFLOWER APPLE FAIL TO 

PERFECT ITS SEED? 

(abstract) 
Henry M. Seely. 

The flower of the apple tree, after the honey bee has graciously 
brought the fertilizng pollen from the stamens to the stigma, and has 
thrown out the unneeded blade of the petal, becomes as all know, the 
fruit, the Apple, Baldwin, Tinmouth, or Gilliflower. 

In this mature fruit may, by care, be traced the organs of the 
flower, the most notable now the united sepals forming the calyx out- 
side and the inner whorl the inclosed compound pistil, the core. One 
will find the organs of the flower disposed in this way; the calyx, 
having coalesced with the receptacle now envelops all, its under leaf 
parts forming the covering skin, the limbs of the compound calyx show- 
ing themselves at the crown or blow end of the apple, while within 
these limbs are crowded as in a miniature bowl, the dried-up remains 



14 Joint Bulletin 1 

of the persistent stamens; the upper side of the leaves of the calyx 
combines with the bases of the petals and possibly with the minute 
bases of the stamens, as well as with the under surfaces of the capil- 
lary pistil, while the upper surfaces of the five leaves, each rolled 
upon itself forms the chitinous-like center star, the heart, the core. 

In the peach a single leaf is inrolled and the upper surface grown 
woody, furnishing the stone with its single seed. The core of the 
apple, however, represents five inrolled leaves, its five cells containing 
a varying number of seeds. 

A slice across the apple reveals what is not evident from the 
surface, particularly the modified representative of the midrib of the 
five sepals and five petals now as fibrous organs subcending from the 
stem to the apex, especially to be at once recognized the five pointed 
star, the five carpels of the compound pistil — these carpels so folded 
over, edge touching edge, that a cell is produced and within are the 
seeds. The upper surface of the leaf is smooth and shining and here 
may be discovered, somewhat modified, the veins of the original leaf. 

Now coming to the heart of our subject, interest may be centered 
on a single leaf of the core. The feather-veined apple leaf has its 
midrib and connecting veins. Each vein at the leaf border contains a 
possible germ and this theoretical germ may by growth form a seed. 
The infolded leaf catching its borders together enlarges a little at the 
line of junction, this enlargement being called a placenta, and here is 
placed the insertion of the germ. Theoretically there may be as many 
germs, later seeds, as there are veins in the leaf but this almost never 
occurs. Within and near the cell cover of an apple then must be cur- 
rents sweeping through the midvein and veins of the carpel. Elabora- 
tive juices must be rushing along the prescribed channels, growth must 
be going on in every germ. Full their streams of irrigation must be, 
full the miniature rivers, creeks, and brooks, to carry the invigorating 
flood to the germs soon to mature as seeds, and these seeds under 
favoring conditions not long after to come forth as vigorous plants. 

But what if at some period of growth, circulation should be inter- 
fered with, the veins lose their ability to transfer the stream of 
elaborated sap to the waiting germ? 

Look at the cell core of the apple Tinmouth for example. The 
original veins of the carpel are plainly seen, the seeds plump, and 
entirely complete. Now cut the Gilliflower from apex to stem and ob- 
serve, the veins are broken down. Apparently their contents have 
overflowed into the containing cell. Nutriment for the growing germ 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 15 

has been cut off, the starved perishing germ leaves but little beside the 
outer covering. 

Now the question, "Why does the Gilliflower apple fail to mature 
its seeds?" almost answers itself, and in these words; the veins carry- 
ing nourishment to the growing germ break down, the needed supply 
is cut off, the half grown seed is starved and perishes. 



WINTER BIRDS SCARCE IN VERMONT. 

George L. Kirk. 

For some reason which the writer has not been able to determine 
winter birds have been unusually scarce in the vicinity of Rutland 
during the winter of 1914-15. This is true of both the permanent 
residents and winter visitants. It is true that there was deep snow 
only for two short periods and beechnuts, which furnish food for some 
species, were unusually plentiful in the fall of 1914. This would 
naturally tend to cause the birds to be well distributed over the country 
and not restricted to certain feeding areas. Reports from other ob- 
servers indicate that the scarcity of bird life during January and Feb- 
ruary was noticed in other parts of the state. 

Duane E. Kent of Rutland, whose daily duties take him frequently 
into Addison county, where there is much flat country in which are 
abundant crops of Chenopodium and other free seeders, which lift 
their heads well above the snow, did not find that this condition ob- 
tained in the district cited. He saw many tree sparrows and snow 
buntings, particularly in the town of Whiting, having once observed 
a flock of the latter which he estimated to contain over a thousand 
birds. In Ripton he observed numerous pine siskins on nearly every 
trip made. 

The writer, to show the relative abundance or scarcity of the 
various species seen about Rutland in the winter, gives below a list of 
the number of birds recorded on various trips afield. These walks 
were taken solely with the purpose of observing bird and mammal life. 
As the weather was usually cold I was usually moving slowly along, 
not sitting quietly as one would do to study birdlife in the summer. 
The total number of birds seen in the 74 hours consumed by the trips 
was 138, or a few less than two to the hour. The total number of miles 
covered by the trips was 106 so that the average number of birds per 
mile was very small. Had it not been for the 25 chickadees found liv- 



16 Joint Bulletin 1 

ing in a cedar swamp even this average would have been greatly- 
reduced. 

In every instance the most favorable territory was selected, open 
hardwoods, evergreen forests', shrubby pastures, ploughed ground and 
bush bordered watercourses being visited at different times. Only one 
tree sparrow was seen between November 22 and the date of writing 
(March 5) and not a single shrike, pine grosbeak, snow bunting nor 
goshawk was recorded during the entire winter. The notes of flocks 
of redpolls, flying high in the air, were twice heard but as the birds 
were not seen they were not taken into consideration. 

The dates of trips, number of birds seen, distance covered and 
time spent afield follow: 

December 6: Three miles, out three hours; crows, 2; white- 
breasted nuthatches, 4; downy woodpeckers, 1; American mergan- 
sers, 1. 

December 13: Three miles, three hours; crows, 2. 

December 20: Six miles, five hours; ruffed grouse, 3. 

December 25: Three miles, three hours; crows, 8; chickadees, 2. 

January 3: Six miles, eight hours; bluejays, 2; downy wood- 
peckers, 2; chickadees, 6; red-breasted nuthatches, 2. 

January 10: Sixteen miles, ten hours; ruffed grouse, 4; tree spar- 
rows, 1; purple finches, 2; crows, 3; white-breasted nuthatches, 2; 
downy woodpeckers, 3; chickadees, 7. 

January 16: Three miles, two hours; great horned owl, 1. 

January 17: Three miles, three hours; no birds. 

January 30: Three miles, two hours; no birds. 

January 31: Five miles, four hours; *sparrow hawks, 1; tred- 
headed woodpeckers, 3. 

February 4: Two miles; two hours; no birds. 

February 7: Five miles, three hours; chickadees, 7; hairy wood- 
peckers, 1; crows, 2. 

February 8: Four miles, two hours; sawwhet owls, 1; white- 
breasted nuthatches, 1. 

February 14: Five miles, five hours; chickadees, 25; crows, 1; 
white-breasted nuthatches, 1; ruffed grouse, 3. 

February 19: Four miles, two hours; prairie horned larks, 1. 

February 20: Three miles, two hours; no birds. 



♦Sparrow hawk remained all winter. 

fThree red-headed woodpeckers spent entire winter in beech grove. 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 17 

February 21: Six miles, four hours; white-breasted nuthatches, 
2; red-breasted nuthatches, 1; hairy woodpeckers, 1; chickadees, 1; 
crows, 2. 

February 22: Two miles, one hour; prairie horned larks, 2. 

February 23: Three miles, two hours; no birds. 

March 1: Five miles, three hours; crows, 1; prairie horned 
larks, 2. 

March 3: Five miles, two hours; prairie horned larks, 7. 

March 5: Six miles, three hours; crows, 3; red-breasted nuthatch, 
1; chickadees, 5; prairie horned larks, 1. 

Same Scarcity at Wells River. 

Under date of January 22, 1915, R. G. Brock of Wells River writes: 
"I would like to know if others have noticed a scarcity of winter birds. 
We have not had a nuthatch, woodpecker nor tree sparrow at our bird 
table this winter, and only a very few chickadees have come. What 
blackcaps did appear were strangers and they did not come until after 
January 1. Heretofore, we have always had some chickadees that had 
been here the winter before, as we could tell by their actions. I did 
not see any of the usual late fall birds during the hunting season." 

A Hartland Report. 

Mrs. Jay G. Underwood of Hartland states that as a whole the 
number of winter birds there has been less than usual. She writes as 
follows: "Most noticeable is the scarcity of chickadees. In January 
they came, but rarely for the suet, nuts and doughnuts which I put out 
for them and when they did come there would be only one or two at a 
time. They were shy and easily startled. Now (March 5) they come 
oftener and act more confiding but I have only three or four at a time 
where in other seasons I had eight or more. I have a flock of 10 or 
15 tree sparrows which I feed canary bird seed and they, too, are fond 
of suet and doughnuts. We have had downy woodpeckers, a pair of 
white-breasted nuthatches and a male purple finch but not a single 
hairy woodpecker. There have been no pine grosbeaks this season. A 
large flock of crows, literally thousands, spend each night in pine 
woods back of our house, always splitting into three bands which go 
their separate ways to feed each morning." 

Conditions at Bethel. 

Mrs. G. M. Miller of Bethel writes: "Winter birds are very scarce 
here. There is a flock of goldfinches that is seen rarely. I saw a 



18 Joint Bulletin 1 

brown creeper a few times in December, a shrike twice in January, and 
on January 9, I heard an incomplete song of a purple finch. I have 
seen few chickadees and no nuthatches." 

A Swanton Center Report. 

Miss Lelia E. Honsinger of Swanton Center says: "We have blue 
jays, snow-buntings and chickadees, but have never seen a bird on the 
suet basket. Food, no doubt, has been abundant, owing to the absence 
of deep snow. In early winter a hairy woodpecker was a frequent 
visitor. Have neither seen nor heard a woodpecker this month (Jan- 
uary) of any variety." 



PLANT QUARANTINE LAWS. 

(abstract). 
B. F. Lutman. 

The study of plant diseases and their prevention has passed through 
the same stages as that of animal diseases. Some years ago we felt 
that the best we could do for either plant or animal pests was to kill 
them after we were bothered with them; today, we believe that it is 
cheaper and better to prevent their spread. In this country we have 
been slower to take such preventive measures than have the people of 
Europe. We have finally waked up to the fact, however, that we lose 
millions of dollars every year from plant diseases whose prevention 
would have been easy if they had been taken in time. They made 
their way into the country in some fashion and now we are forever 
troubled by them. 

W^e carry out our measures for the prevention of the spread of 
plant diseases through our state and federal quarantine laws. The 
Vermont state law dates from 1908, amended in 1912. It provides for 
a state nursery inspector appointed by the state commissioner of 
agriculture, whose duties are to prevent the introduction into the state 
of diseases, insect or fungus, on nursery stock from outside the state 
and to inspect the nurseries inside the state. The nurseries are not 
very large or numerous in Vermont, so the inspector's duties are chiefly 
concerned with the trees and plants that come over our borders. He 
gets control of these shipments through the railroad and express 
companies. 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 19 

The law only mentions one disease specifically, San Jose scale, 
but he also looks them over for root gall, crown gall, hairy root, blister 
mite and gypsy moth. This control has undoubtedly been of lasting 
service to Vermont horticulturalists in keeping these pests from getting 
a foothold in the state. 

The international or federal quarantine derives its authority from 
the Simmon's bill which became a law August 20, 1912. The federal 
horticultural board, composed of five members, appointed by the United 
States department of agriculture aids the responsible agent for the 
enforcement. The law is directed against new and dangerous pests, 
particularly on florists' and nurserymen's stock. A public hearing 
is granted before a plant from another country or from a region of this 
country is quarantined for a disease. Even if excluded for ordinary 
purposes, plants may still be obtained for scientific and experimental 
work but only after they have been duly inspected and certified. 

The quarantine notices issued so far have been against the importa- 
tion of the potato from Canada and Europe on account of the powdery 
scab prevalent there, and coniferous seedlings from Europe. There 
have also been prohibitions against the shipping of potatoes from cer- 
tain regions in Maine and New York unless they had been inspected 
and certified. The work of this board is comparatively new and there 
are many difficulties in its way but it is doing the country a service 
that will be appreciated more in future years than it is now. 



SHORT-BILLED MARSH WREN AND HENSLOW 
SPARROW AT CLARENDON. 

L. H. Potter. 

North of our house in Clarendon is a small marsh about 10 rods in 
length by two rods wide, covered mainly with a thick growth of 
calamus and tall marsh grass. 

It was on this marsh during the summer of 1913 that I discovered 
the nest of one of our rarest birds; the short-billed marsh wren. 

The birds first made their appearance on the marsh on June 17, 
and from that date until about July 10, when they were last seen, the 
male's song could be heard almost incessantly at any time of day or 
night, no matter what the weather. 

Their close proximity to the house afforded ample opportunity 
for observing them, but so clever did they conceal their nesting opera- 



20 Joint Bulletin 1 

tions that I was unable to locate their home until the grass was being 
cut on the marsh on July 8, when the nest was found some distance 
from the spot where the birds were most frequently seen; containing 
seven pure white eggs. 

The nest was globular in shape with an opening in the side, com- 
posed of fine grasses, and lined with plant down, situated about 
one foot from the ground in a thick patch of sedge grass. 

I have observed this wren several times on the great marsh in 
Tinmouth, where they undoubtedly breed. 

Another of our rare birds, though more common here than the 
marsh wren, is the Henslow sparrow. These little sparrows, although 
considered rare in New England, may be found quite common in favor- 
able localities in West Clarendon. Their favorite habitat is moist 
upland meadows not under the plow, grown up to clumps of ferns, tall 
meadow rue, and scattering shrubbery. 

Arriving here the last of April or early in May, their two syllabled 
song, which sounds like serr-it, serr-it, may be heard until the hay is 
cut, after which they are seldom seen. Yet, I have noted one as late 
as the middle of September. 

These birds are very difficult to identify owing to their habit of 
hiding in the grass and not flushing until nearly stepped upon, then 
flying but a short distance before alighting, rarely giving one a good 
view through a field glass. 

Although I have known from six to eight pairs nesting on or near 
our place every year, I have been unable to learn but very little about 
their nesting habits. 

I have discovered two nests, one on August 9, 1909, and the other, 
August 9, 1911; each containing one fresh egg. Both of these nests 
were mowed out while men were cutting hay on their nesting grounds. 

Both nests were abandoned by the birds and are now in the writer's 
possession. They were situated in a depression in the ground, com- 
posed entirely of fine grasses and arched over the top; concealed in a 
patch of thick grass. 

The eggs are pale greenish white, covered with reddish brown 
blotches, about the size of those of the chipping sparrow, although not 
as pointed. 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 21 

BIRD CALENDAR FROM WAITSFIELD. 

Mr. and Mrs. C. M. Richardson. 

Residents. 

Black-capped chickadee, blue jay, crow, hairy woodpecker, downy 
woodpecker, white-breasted nuthatch, red-breasted nuthatch. 

Migrants and Summer Residents. 

1912 

Mallard 4-26 

American merganser 

Canada goose 

Great blue heron • 

Herring gull 

Great northern diver 10-15 

Yellow rail 10-15 

Red-tailed hawk 

Sparrow hawk 4-26 

Sharp-shinned hawk 

Broad-winged hawk 

Pigeon hawk 

Red-shouldered hawk 5-18 

Osprey 

*Swallow-tailed kite 

Spotted sandpiper 5-3 

Semi-palmated sandpiper 

Black-billed cuckoo 7- 

Belted kingfisher 7- 

Yellow-bellied sapsucker 5-2 

Arctic three-toed woodpecker 

Flicker 4-2 

Nighthawk 9- 

Chimney swift 5- 5 

Barn swallow 4-26 

Eave swallow ..." 5-3 

Tree swallow 5-10 

Bank swallow 6-9 

Swamp sparrow 4-17 

Grasshopper sparrow 



1913 


1914 


2-23 


2-17 




5- 5 


5- 


10-13 


9- 


9- 


9- 


4-23 


4-13 




7-24 


5- 7 




9- 




5- 6 




4-27 




9- 5 


4-26 




5- 3 


4-30 




5-24 




5-10 


5-14 


4-27 


5- 7 


4-30 




4-30 


4-18 


4-15 


6- 2 


7-12 


5-15 


5-10 


4-25 


5- 4 


4-24 


5- 9 


5- 6 


4-23 


5-26 


5- 8 


5-15 




4-12 


4-17 



22 Joint Bulletin 1 

1912 

Tree sparrow 4-8 

Fox sparrow 

Song sparrow 4-2 

Vesper sparrow 4- 

Chipping sparrow 4-17 

Field sparrow 4-28 

White-crowned sparrow 5-21 

White-throated sparrow 5-2 

Savanna sparrow 

Pine grosbeak 3- 

Horned lark 

Redpolls 3- 

Lapland long spur 2- 

Xorthern shrike 3- 

Junco 3- 

Snowflake 2- 

Screech owl 2- 

Partridge 3- 

Pine siskin 4-17 

Brown creeper 4-17 

Robin 3- 

Bluebird 4-6 

Red-winged blackbird 4-2 

Meadow lark 4-2 

Bronzed grackle 4-3 

Rusty blackbird 

Phoebe 4-6 

Purple finch 4-17 

Goldfinch 5-19 

Ruby-crowned kinglet 5-2 

Golden-crowned kinglet 

Purple martin 

Kingbird 5- 5 

Cowbird 5-8 

Bobolink 5-9 

Least flycatcher 5-7 

Olive-sided flycatcher 

Great-crested flycatcher 6-19 

Acadian flycatcher 8- 



1913 


1914 


3-15 


4- 1 


4- 4 




3-20 


3-28 


4-18 


4-15 


4-24 


5- 4 




5-14 




5-19 


5- 1 


4-25 




4-16 


2-24 


1- 7 


2-23 


3- 1 




1-25 




4- 2 


2-23 


4- 1 


2- 


4- 1 


2-10 




3- 


5- 



3-10 


3-31 


3-16 


3-27 


3-24 


4- 4 


3-20 


4- 4 


4-12 


4-23 


4- 6 


4-23 


3-31 


4-14 


4-16 


5- 2 


3-20 


5-10 




4-26 




5- 4 


7-25 


7- 9 


5-14 


5- 7 


4-26 


5- 2 


5- 6 


5- 7 


5- 5 


5- 5 




5-24 


6- 3 




5-11 





Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 

1912 

Yellow-bellied flycatcher 5-13 

Red-eyed vireo 5-8 

Warbling vireo 5-10 

Yellow-throated vireo 5-15 

Blue-headed vireo 5-28 

Baltimore oriole 5-10 

Wilson thrush 5-9 

Hermit thrush 5-19 

Olive-backed thrush 5-27 

Wood thrush 5-26 

Brown thrasher 5-26 

Ruby-throated humming bird 5-15 

Catbird 5-18 

Scarlet tanager 5-19 

Rose-breasted grosbeak 5-19 

Indigo bunting 5-19 

Wood pewee 5-22 

Cedar waxwing 5-27 

Winter wren 8- 

House wren 

Black and white warbler 5-10 

Cape May warbler 

Black-throated blue warbler 5-26 

Black-throated green warbler 5-10 

Parula warbler 

Magnolia warbler 5-13 

Myrtle warbler 5-9 

Blackburnian warbler 5-24 

Nashville warbler 5-9 

Yellow warbler 5-12 

Chestnut-sided warbler 5-12 

Wilson's warbler 

Redstart 5-12 

Maryland yellow-throat 5-15 

Ovenbird 5-12 

Water thrush 

Tennessee warbler 

Kentucky warbler 

Bay-breasted warbler 





23 


1913 


1914 


4-27 


5-26 


5- 4 


5- 8 




5- 3 




5- 5 


5- 5 


5-14 


5- 1 


5-27 




5- 3 




5-24 


5-21 






7- 9 


5-23 


5-21 


5-23 


5- 8 


5-21 


6-20 


5-18 


5-14 


6- 3 


5-20 


7- 9 


5-27 


6- 4 


5-27 


5- 8 


4-27 




5-24 


5- 1 


4-30 




5- 4 


5- 8 


5- 5 


5-11 


5- 6 




5- 5 


5-11 


5- 5 


4-25 


5- 5 


5- 1 


5- 6 


5-11 


5- 7 


5- 6 


5- 8 


5-11 


5-14 




5-19 


5-18 


5-14 


5-24 


5-10 


6- 1 


5- 9 


8-13 


5-19 




5-21 




5-22 




5-26 



24 Joint Bulletin 1 

1912 1913 1914 

Canada warbler 5-21 5-26 

Worm-eating warbler 6-9 

Pine warbler 6-2 

Mrs. Richardson states that the swallow-tailed kite was seen about 
Waitsfield for two weeks and that because of its large size, deeply 
forked tail and strongly contrasted black and white plumage, it was 
unmistakable. 



FOREST FUNGI OF BETHEL. 

Dr. Perley Spaulding. 

The writer has collected the forest fungi of the township of Bethel, 
Vt. for a number of years. Very little time can be given to it at any 
one time and most of the collecting is done incidentally, so progress 
has been slow. The area to be covered is nearly six miles square or 
thirty-six square miles. Some of this area has not yet been visited but 
it is intended to make the search thorough before it is finished. This 
area has been chosen as being fairly representative of Vermont con- 
ditions, since it extends up to the higher Green Mountains on one side 
while the White River valley is an extension of the Connecticut River 
valley and has a number of plants of the more southern section. 

The typical tree and shrub species are red spruce, yew, hemlock, 
beech, sugar, red, striped, mountain and silver maple, yellow and paper 
birch, butternut, aspen, balsam poplar, large toothed poplar, ironwood. 
hop hornbeam, linden, white elm, black, pin and choke cherry, white 
ash, shining, pussy and heart-leaved willows, June berry, staghorn 
sumac, hazelnut, flowering and red raspberries, highbush blackberry, 
sweetbrier rose, common elder, hobble-bush, maple-leaved viburnum. 
Rather uncommon species are balsam fir, larch, common juniper, white 
pine, red cedar (a single cedar swamp known), red pine (a single 
wild tree knowm), a hickory (too immature for positive identification), 
black alder, chestnut (two mature trees known), red oak, slippery elm, 
mountain ash, black locust, black ash, prickly gooseberry, barberry. 

Of the tree fungi mention will be made here only of the most 
common and largest species. There are Armillaria mellea, causing root 
rot of all kinds of trees but usually noted on stumps and dead roots; 
Pqjius stypticus on dead wood; Schizophyllum commune on dead wood; 
Daedalea cotifragosa. D. quercina. D. unicolor, Lenzites betulina and L. 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 25 

vialis on deciduous wood. Lenzites sepiaria and Trametes pini on 
red spruce and hemlock trees. Forties applanatus, F. fomentarius, F. 
connatus, F. fulvus, F. igniarius and F. obliquus on deciduous trees 
and wood; Forties carneus and F. tsugae on coniferous wood, F. pinicola 
on both kinds of wood. Merulius tremellosus on paper birch wood. 
Polyporus aclustus, P. resinosus, P. brumalis. P. chioneus, P. conchifer, 
P. ftssus. P. gilvus, P. perplexus and P. sulphureus on deciduous wood. 
Polystictus abietinus on coniferous wood. Polystictus biformis, P. 
cinnabarinus, P. hirsutus, P. pergamenus and P. versicolor on decidu- 
ous woods. Hydnum caput-ursi, H. ochracenm, H. erinaceus, Irpex 
lacteus and I. sinuosus on deciduous wood. Corticium pezezoideum on 
poplar twigs. Hymenochatete tabacinus and Stereum jmrpureum on 
deciduous wood. 

There are numerous leaf and twig fungi which cannot be men- 
tioned here. What has been done is but a beginning. Collections of 
the flowering plants are also being made but special emphasis has 
so far been given to the woody stemmed plants and the larger tree 
fungi. 



BIRDS ALONG THE SOURCE OF THE BLACK RIVER. 

Mrs. W. H. Moore. 

For several years past I have spent some days at a time in 
Plymouth and vicinity near the source of the Black river and along its 
tributaries. Sometimes in the spring, but more often in the fall, we 
have taken trips over the hills and mountains and around the lakes 
near Tyson. The study of bird life in this locality is very interesting. 

Some of the representatives which we class as our more northern 
birds are common residents here, around the lakes and in the higher 
altitudes: Juncoes, golden-crowned kinglets, red-breasted nuthatches, 
red crossbills, olive-backed thrushes, olive-sided flycatchers, white- 
throated and Savannah sparrows, winter wrens, and some of the 
warblers. 

In May of two different seasons I have heard the winter wren in 
full song, and felt sure that his nest was near by although I have never 
found it. About midway down the Notch road I saw a wren singing, 
and it hardly seemed possible that the exquisite music which filled the 
notch cleft between the hills could come from that mite of a bird 
perched on a stake by the side of the road! He was very shy on 



26 Joint Bulletin 1 

approach. I heard one singing for several days near the upper lake, 
and saw one in the fall with flocks of juncoes and sparrows in migra- 
tion. 

A pair of pine warblers, with their young just out of the nest, 
allowed us to observe them at close range near the upper lake while 
they fed and cared for their tiny, fluffy babies. The olive-backed 
thrush is heard every season singing during the nesting period near the 
old notch mountain road, and the Savannah sparrow is common on the 
hill meadows near the ponds at the Notch. The altitude here is about 
1,500 feet. Juncoes nest*only a little way from the lake on higher land. 

We have spent several outings in the fall in this locality, and on 
two occasions lived in tents on the hill between Plymouth Five Corners 
and the Black river. The altitude here is 1,800 feet and it is only a 
few minutes walk to the top or rim at a height of 2,000 feet. 

October is a most interesting month in which to observe the late 
migrants, as well as the winter birds. The robins, bluebirds and 
juncoes left us the last of the month; but the ever-present, happy 
chickadee, the golden-crowned kinglet, nuthatches, pine grosbeaks, 
crossbills and siskins, were always with us. Blue jays and partridges 
were very plenty. 

The great horned owls calling and answering through the night 
(and often in the daytime) and the funny laughing or barking call 
of the barred owl, together with the sounds of the many little animals, 
made one almost start when they spoke out too near the tent — and 
then smile and enjoy the strange noises. 

The tone of the owls' hooting was at the same pitch as the whistle 
of the engine on the Central Vermont railway train, which we could 
hear very plainly. This may have been a co-incident, but it was very 
noticeable. 

One bright, sunny morning, a pine grosbeak perched on the top 
of a pine tree and gave us a soft rendering of his lovely song; and this 
was the only time I have ever heard their song. 

A flock of wild geese going southward passed over the tents one 
night, and their honk-honking could be heard along the line of flight, 
growing fainter with their rapid progress. 

Sometimes a partridge would fly onto the tent in the early morning 
from the pine trees overhead, and the blue jays were most inquisitive 
neighbors. 

One of the most interesting features of these fall observations was 
the drumming lessons of the partridges. For days the drumming was 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 27 

kept up almost continuously, first in one locality and then in another. 
Sometimes if the nights were bright with moonlight they would drum 
all through the night; and we remarked that the old and experienced 
drummers were probably in demand as teachers. 

Since this experience I have seen an article in one of the outing 
magazines which described the fall drumming lessons of the young 
partridges, and the descriptions tally perfectly with our observations. 

Large flocks of pine grosbeaks frequently stay around the farm 
buildings in this locality during extremely cold weather. In the 
winter of 1912 Mrs. E. E. Earle fed these birds for several weeks and 
she described a few in the flocks as colored with bright yellow. Her 
description was very good of the rare evening grosbeak. An item in 
one of the St. Johnsbury papers that same winter stated that a small 
flock of the evening grosbeaks had been seen in that vicinity with the 
pine grosbeaks, that being the third time they had been reported within 
the state. 

One fall, early in November, we took a trip to the top of Saltash 
mountain from the Plymouth side. The altitude is between 2,200 and 
2,500 feet. We were entirely enveloped in clouds a part of the morning, 
which seemed unfortunate, but these conditions caused a most interest- 
ing incident. A flock of robins, evidently bewildered or uncertain 
in their flight, settled down on the bald top and side of the mountain. 
There were hundreds of them chirping and singing softly. They had 
apparently started on their migratory flight. 

During that day we saw flocks of American crossbills, pine siskins 
and numerous red-breasted nuthatches. These little fellows were very 
sociable and would come down the scrub spruce tree trunks very near 
us. Their soft chattering and little bugle calls were really quite 
musical. There were scores of them overhead and in the nearby trees. 
There is a fascination in watching a flock of pine siskins in their 
flight, undulating like the goldfinch, though very much more rapid, 
they will dart out from a tree, cutting wave-like circles, scurry here 
and there, first high, then low, off to the next hill, and back again. 
Whether the flock is large or small they always fly as one bird. Their 
call note, "Swe-e-t," is very like that of the goldfinch. 



28 Joint Bulletin 1 

CROSSBILLS AT ST. JOHNSBURY. 

Mabel A. Shields. 

As crossbills are rather rare visitors, it may be of interest to the 
club to know that white-winged crossbills were reported at St. Johns- 
bury in January, 1915. On January 21, a small flock visited the Sheep- 
cote grounds. Every bird traveler seems to know and go to Sheepcote 
for the refreshment provided there not only by the evergreens, crab 
apple trees and barberry bushes, but by the feeding shelves and suet 
bags kept in readiness by the friends who are always watching to 
welcome bird guests. 

American crossbills visited us in May last year. They were seen 
at Sheepcote on April 30. They were noted again on May 4. On May 
18 and 22 it was my great pleasure to see these birds and introduce two 
different groups of school children to them. The first morning as we 
were "bird-walking" between 9 and 10 and approached a small group 
of evergreens, we were attracted by the unusual coloring of some birds 
in the road only a few feet in front of us and saw that they were 
American crossbills eating seeds dropped by others of their flock 
who were busy at the cones above. We watched them until they flew, 
noting their twitter as they did so. We did not happen to see them 
again till the 22nd, when on other grounds not far away we found them 
enjoying a little change of menu for their morning meal, for this time 
several were eating the pussy poplar catkins that had grown big 
and red. 

This was my last walk to that locality for some days and I do not 
know just how long they remained. 



ADDITIONS TO THE VERMONT HEPATIC LIST FOP 

1914. 

Annie Lorenz. 

The additions to the Vermont hepatic list for 1914 are but two 
in number, both collected by the writer. They are Chiloscyphus pal- 
lescens (Ehrh.) Dum. and Diplophylleia apiculata Evans, making a 
total to date of 119. 

The former was collected at West Haven, during the Vermont 
Botanical club's summer meeting. It grew upon a rotten log in a 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 29 

swampy place in the woods below the limestone ledges visited that 
afternoon by the club. 

The little Diplophylleia was growing upon a shaded bank along the 
state road in the town of Guilford, and was collected in August. The 
writer stopped the car to get it, because this looked like a good place 
for it. Material of both species has been deposited with Dr. M. A. 
Howe, at the New York Botanical garden. 

There are at least forty species on the New England list which 
may be confidently expected in Vermont; that is, practically every- 
thing except the high alpine species found only upon Mount Wash- 
ington, and the southern species reaching their northern limit in Con- 
necticut. There are five New England stations at Willoughby alone, 
one of which is the first North American station. 

Of the species quoted in the writer's recent list of species yet to 
be expected in New England, Vermont is given as the most likely state 
in which at least a dozen are to be sought, and many more are equally 
likely to be first detected in Vermont. Mount Mansfield and vicinity 
have been only superficially examined, and many interesting finds 
await discovery there. 

Any material sent in by collectors will be gladly examined by the 
writer. 



NEW VERMONT HEPATICAE IN 1913. 

Annie Lorenz. 

The 1913 additions to the Vermont hepatic list were 10 in number 
and they were all collected in the vicinity of Willoughby Lake during 
July. 

Two species, Lophozia grancliretis (Lindb.) Schiffn. and Diplo- 
phylleia gymnostomophila (Kaal.), a recently-recognized Scandinavian 
species, are new to North America. Three species, Clevea hyalina 
(Somm.) Lindb., Neesiella rupestris (Nees.) Schiffn. and Lophozia 
Schultzii (Nees.) Schiffn., are new to New England. 

These five additions are all arctic-limestone species, relics of the 
glacial period, like the rest of the flora of the Willoughby hills. 

The five remaining species are new to Vermont: Pallavicinia 
Flotowiana (Nees.) Lindb., Nardia Geoscyphus (De Not.) Lindb., 



♦Omitted bv error from Vermont Botanical Club Bulletin No. 9. 



30 Joint Bulletin 1 

CcphalozieUa Sta?-Jcei (Funck.) Schiffn., Calypogeia suecica (Am. & 
Perss.) C. Mull., Frullania Belwyniana Pearson. 

The little Cah/pogeia was collected by E. H. Lorenz, the rest by 
Prof. A. W. Evans and A. Lorenz. 



NOTES ON TWO VERMONT NATURE CLUBS. 

(abstract). 
J. G. Underwood. 

The Hartland Nature club has had a rather quiet year so far as 
results go, but the interest is maintained as strong as ever. Excellent 
meetings have been held and the attendance has been about normal. 
We face the new year with confidence, anticipating the busiest of our 
history. The completion of the new town hall now being built will 
give us better quarters than ever. Provision was made in the plans for 
the building for a sort of annex which will contain three good sized 
rooms: one as an historical room for the safe keeping of such relics of 
the town's history as may be given, one as a permanent home for the 
village library and the third as a permanent home for the Nature club. 
This will give us a place to store our collections. 

The club has volunteered to assume charge of the grounds around 
this beautiful building, and plans to use in their development, native 
trees, shrubs, and flowers as far as possible. Our February meeting 
will be given up to a study of those Native plants that are available 
for landscape gardening, different members taking up the sections 
mentioned. 

As the work already accomplished seems to warrant it, the club 
will continue the study of the song-sparrow this next year, and in the 
fall will devote one entire meeting to the bird under the leadership 
of Mrs. Merritt, who is to oversee this study. The topic for this meet- 
ing will be the life, habits, and numbers of the song-sparrow in Hart- 
land. Under the leadership of another member the club will as in- 
dividuals study the life history of wasps; and one meeting will be given 
up to papers on the observations made. Out door meetings in the 
summer will continue to be devoted more to exploring and collecting 
than to formal papers. 

I learn that the Nature club at Waitsfield is in flourishing condi- 
tion. Under the influence of a new building for the library in which a 
room was given over to the use of this club, a very interesting year 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 31 

has passed. Meetings were held every two weeks during the summer, 
and are held every month during the winter. Botanical specimens were 
brought into the meetings and studied. Some were pressed and 
mounted so that the club has the beginning of an herbarium. I am in- 
formed that from February 21 to September 12, 726 specimens were 
brought in for study. These included mosses, mushrooms, flowers, and 
ferns. An excellent study of native trees was conducted and I saw in 
the spring a very attractive exhibit of the budding twigs, the bark, and 
the finished wood of the trees. 



A BIRD CALENDAR. 

Alice W. Wilcox. 

The Fairbanks museum at St. Johnsbury has kept an exact record 
of the bird-population of the community in 1914, in the form of a bird 
calendar. 

A duplicate set of mounted birds has been used for this purpose. 
A number of reliable observers have been asked to report the first ap- 
pearances of the birds in their vicinity with the exact date for each. 
Our taxidermist, W. E. Balch of Lunenburg, devised a special bracket 
of wire to fasten to the wall to hold the bird and its label. Each bird 
on its arrival in the spring was put on its bracket in the order of its 
appearance; the series bearing the relation of words on the printed 
page. The labels were typewritten library cards, giving scientific and 
popular names, size, general description, field marks, main habits, and 
the date of its first appearance. 

As the spring migrants went north to nest, the dates of departure 
were carefully recorded on the cards below the dates of arrival, and the 
specimen bird removed from the bracket. At the end of the migration, 
therefore, only summer residents remained on the calendar. 

With the coming of the fall migrants, each one was restored to its 
place in the calendar and the date of second arrival placed on the card. 
Upon the departure of each migrant southward, the bird was again re- 
moved and the date of last appearance recorded on the card. At the 
end of the fall migration period, the permanent residents were placed 
on the calendar. As the winter visitants or irregular visitants arrived, 
they were added with suitable cards. 

The cards assembled at the end of the year give the exact record 
of the bird life of the community during the year. 



32 Joint Bulletin 1 

The bird calendar, like the flower calendar, affords the easiest 
method of identifying any specimen observed in the field and learning 
the main points regarding it. It is of special value to the public 
schools, and we hope it may be referred to more often by visitors from 
other parts of the country as its significance comes to be understood. 



NATURE WORK IN BENNINGTON LIBRARY. 

Miss Josephine M. Keeler. 

In the early spring and summer many small parties met at the 
Bennington Free library and went bird hunting, Dr. and Mrs. Ross. 
Mrs. Aiken, Miss Alden and Mrs. Donnelly being, perhaps, the most 
enthusiastic. All during the spring and summer we had on the 
bulletin board, in the children's room, pictures of the birds which had 
come that week and were still with us, the bird case containing all 
kinds of stuffed birds, being tagged, so that now the children can name 
them without looking at the typewritten slips. These changes were 
made with the help of Dr. Ross, one of the library trustees. 

In connection with our story-hour, at the library, we have had 
two Saturdays devoted to our "Winter Birds", and "Our Native Birds". 
These talks were given and illustrated by Mrs. Aiken. 

The exhibition of field and garden flowers was a particularly in- 
teresting part of our nature work. It was continued wholly by volun- 
tary contributions, and aroused an unusual amount of interest. The 
number of specimens brought in reached 149, and they were all named 
in the library. 

This is the first year that any attempt has been made to devote 
a corner to nature work, but it seems to have established itself perma- 
nently, hence, we hope to be able to give a better report next year. 



A FILIX-MAS HYBRID. 

E. J. Winslow of Auburndale, Mass., writes to Mr. Underwood re- 
garding certain ferns from G. L. Kirk's station for Filix-mas near 
Brandon as follows: — 

"I think your 4063 D is Dryopteris Filix-mas x marginals though 
the cutting and form of the pinnules does not indicate that hybrid. 
The form of the frond and of the pinna?, position of sori, color and tex- 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 33 

ture are all right for the hybrid. It has a few normal spores, so few 
that they may have come from other plants in the wind or from the 
presspaper. But these ferns are so closely related that the hybrid 
may prove fertile. In that case this plant may be a third generation 
Mendelian cross. Your 4063 A is a puzzle. It seems to have no normal 
spores. The plant is very underdevelope'd for July 30. I think it is a 
hybrid, but if it is related in any way with the spinulosums, it is not a 
very good intermediate. It compares pretty well with a European 
Dryopteris remota in my collection though your fern is much bigger. 
Remota is probably a D. Filix-mas x spinulosa hybrid, was so regarded 
by Milde over 50 years ago. I am not sure that your fern is anything 
more than an extreme form of Filix-mas. 

"After taking the specimens to Cambridge and comparing them 
with the herbarium specimens with Dr. Robinson's assistance, he writes 
in regard to this same plant: — 'Your 4063 A is beyond any variation 
I have found described. I think it is a hybrid but it is not what I 
should expect as an intermediate with spinulosa. I prefer not to make 
a positive statement until I see the plants in the field." 

This station for Filix-mas is in a cold ravine, and the plants, about 
twelve to fourteen in number, are closely associated with a form of 
Aspiclium spinulosum var. dilatatum forma anadenium and with 
Aspidium marginale. Only a few feet away is an abundance of Aspi- 
dium spinulosum var. intermedium. 



NEW BOTANICAL FINDS FOR ST. JOHNSBURY AND 

VICINITY. 

Inez A. Howe. 

During the season of 1914 several additions were made to the 
local flora of St. Johnsbury and vicinity in connection with the botani- 
cal work at the Fairbanks museum. 

In St. Johnsbury, Veronica arvensis and Pastinaca sativa were 
found in newly seeded fields; Rides floridvm along the clayey bank of 
Moose river; Anthemis arvensis, Geranium molle and Convolvulus 
arvensis in village lawns. In moist woodland, Equisetum sylvaticum 
was found growing plentifully; Apocynum medium by a roadside; 
Sparganium eurycarpum in a marsh and Cirsium pumilum in a dry 
pasture; Aster novi-belgii was found growing sparingly on the Passump- 



34 Joint Bulletin 1 

sic river road, and several roadside stations for Helianthus tuberosus 
were located. 

Rhamnus cathartica was found growing abundantly in a dry pasture 
in the west part of the town. A new station for Habenaria hookeri 
was located in a bit of woodland near the village, but my best "find" of 
the season was a single plant of Habenaria leucophaa growing in moist 
pasture land. This last specimen was sent to Dr. Brainerd for verifi- 
cation. 

At Stiles' pond in Waterford, about four miles from St. Johnsbury, 
I found a very large area of Hypericum virginicum and also of Circuta 
bulbifera. 

In Lyndon, a few miles north of St. Johnsbury, a large patch of 
Hehopsis helianthoides (Dr. Brainerd identified it for me) was found 
growing on a sandy hillside and a generous quantity of Potentillo recta 
was growing by the roadside a few T rods farther north. 

A new station for Solidago cutleri was discovered by W. E. Balch 
on Baldwin Hill in Lunenburg, at an altitude of about 2,000 feet. This 
specimen was sent to Prof. M. L. Fernald for verification. 

In my notes published in last year's bulletin, I wish to correct 
one error. My aster which I identified as A. sagittifolius. W. W. Eggles- 
ton tells me is A. cordifolius. 



NOTES. 

There has been distributed by George L. Kirk several specimens of 
a peculiar goldenrod from Mount Killington under the name Solidago 
calcicola. This was done on the authority of Dr. Merritt L. Fernald of 
Cambridge, Mass., who identified the plant from two specimens sent 
him in 1913. Having since seen a great amount of material of S. calci- 
cola from a number of northern stations, Mr. Fernald now considers 
that the Vermont plant must be excluded from that species, being 
probably a hybrid between 8. maerophylla and 8. rugosa, which was 
what Harold G. Rugg, D. Lewis Dutton and Mr. Kirk considered it 
when they first saw it in the field. 

Miss Grace I. Ross of Washington, D. C, a member of the Botanical 
club, and William E. Chamberlin, a chemist in the employ of the United 
States government, were married at Washington, March 3, 1915. 

Mr. Kirk took, at Rutland for the United States biological survey, a 
bird census similar to that described in this issue by Mrs. Morgan of 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 35 

Woodstock. He found on 60 acres 68 breeding pairs, including 25 
species. 

According to Prof. E. S. Shaw, Goldie's fern, Aspidium Goldianum, 
is unusually abundant in the vicinity of Northfield. He knows of one 
locality in which there are 10,000 plants in an area a person can en- 
circle by walking in five minutes. 

Miss Inez A. Howe reports a worm eating warbler at St. Johnsbury 
on September 25, 1914. 

Miss Howe took a bird census on a 40-acre tract at St. Johnsbury 
in 1914 for the biological survey. She found 24 breeding pairs of 
birds and, in addition to these, 54 singing males. The most notable 
nesting record discovered was the grasshopper sparrow. 

The European starling has spread as far north as Castleton. A 
half dozen birds have for some time taken up their abode in a church 
steeple. 

A Bethel bird list sent in by Mrs. G. M. Miller notes 92 species for 
1914. She includes Philadelphia vireo, Cape May warbler, Bonaparte 
gull and goldeneye. A tree sparrow as late as May 7, is an interesting 
record. 

Mary L. Sanford of Stamford, sends in a list of 69 birds observed 
in Stamford, with many good observations in 1914, about the different 
species and their nests. A Holboell's grebe was found in the snow in 
a meadow after the river froze over. 

The St. Johnsbury bird list, reported by Miss Inez A. Howe in- 
cludes 101 species, among which are the Lapland longspur, Canada jay 
(6), mourning warbler, grasshopper sparrow, goshawk, woodthrush. A 
late date for Baltimore oriole was October 17. 

Miss Inez A. Howe observed an albino bluebird at St. Johnsbury, 
August 28 to September 30, 1914. 

Mrs. J. G. Underwood of Hartland reports that a white-throated 
sparrow visited her food shelf on Thanksgiving day and remained 
around her home for three days, leaving on the approach of colder 
weather. 

Mr. and Mrs. Herbert E. Straw of Stowe have found an interesting 
birch at the foot of Sterling mountain. It is probably a hybrid between 
the yellow and either the white or gray birches. The clump has been 
destroyed by brush cutters, but Mr. Straw has transplanted a large root 
in his yard and will watch it with interest. 

A robin spent the winter of 1914-15 at Westminster. J. W. Collins 
states that he has been unsuccessful in getting it to eat any of various 



36 Joint Biiii n\ 1 

things offered it, black alder berries, of which there are many in the 
vicinity, seeming to satisfy its appetite. 

William C. Horton of Brattleboro, who has kept a bird record for a 
number of years, listed 90 species in 1914. Up to January 22 he had 
had 12 species at his winter feeding table. Notable among these were 
a song-sparrow and a field sparrow, exceedingly rare even in southern 
Vermont in winter. 

Mr. Horton seconds the expression of A. E. Tuttle of Bellows Palls 
in Vermont Bird Club, Bulletin No. 8, against the house cat. He 
writes: "I have observed the work of cats catching young birds. They 
do their worst work when the fledglings are just off the nest. I hope 
that in the near future there will be a law, covering Mr. Tuttle's views 
in regard to cats. The red squirrel and the blue jay are bad enemies 
to young birds. Since I began shooting these pests on my place I 
have had double the number of birds formerly found here." 

New plants reported for the West River Valley in 1914 by Leston 
A. Wheeler of Townshend are: Cerastium nutans, Rubus triflorus, Viola 
rostrata, Pinus rigida, Sorbaria sorbifolia, Myosotis arvensis, Staphylca 
trifolia, Rubus canadensis, R. permixtus, Sagina procumbens, Lysimachia 
producta, Botrychium ramosum, B. lanceolatum var. angustisegment- 
um, Taraxicum erythrospermum, Desmodium paniculatum, Pyrola 
chlorantha, Chrysanthemum parthenium, Tanacetum vulgare var. oris- 
pum, Carex formosa and 8o?ichus oleraceus. 







3 2044 093 261 683 



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